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臺灣花東海域鯨豚與漁業的互動情形

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李宛蓉、郭庭君* 通訊作者

國立臺灣海洋大學海洋事務與資源管理研究所

 

摘要

鯨豚與漁業的衝突包含咬食、漁網纏繞、作業干擾及混獲等。某些互動不僅可能對漁業造成經濟損失,也可能對鯨豚造成受傷甚至死亡的風險。台灣東部黑潮帶來豐富的鯨豚生態與漁業資源,亦常發生漁業被鯨豚干擾的現象。然而,過往的研究僅著重在宜蘭一帶,或特定互動模式(如混獲)、漁法(如延繩釣),而缺乏花東海域較廣泛之漁法與鯨豚互動的瞭解。本研究自2022年6月至2022年9月,於花蓮港、石梯港及成功港,對流刺網、延繩釣、底刺網等漁民進行問卷訪談,以瞭解台灣東部海域漁業與鯨豚互動之情形。研究結果顯示:所有漁民皆表示曾在海上作業時目擊鯨豚。其中67%受訪的延繩釣漁民表示海上作業曾受鯨豚干擾而造成漁獲損失,91%受訪的流刺網漁民表示漁具曾受鯨豚干擾而造成損害。在混獲方面,流刺網漁民回報之混獲情形高於其他兩種漁法,其中夏季時因海面較平穩,混獲率較低;冬季時受東北季風影響,海面擾動大,混獲率高。在漁具上裝設忌避措施方面則以延繩釣漁民意願較大。另外,在轉型至賞鯨船工作之意願中,大部分漁民皆無意願,主要原因為沒有足夠的資金以及不願意受雇於他人。本研究結果可以為台灣漁業在作業時受鯨豚干擾的管理建議上給予方向。

關鍵字

鯨豚、咬食、混獲、漁業干擾、台灣東部海域

 
  DOI: 
 
 

Interactions Between Cetaceans and Fisheries in Eastern Taiwan

 

Wan-Jung Lee, Ting-Chun Kuo*Corresponding author

Institute of Marine Affairs and Resource Management, National Taiwan Ocean University

 

Abstract

Interactions between cetaceans and fisheries include depredation, entanglement of fishing nets, interrupting fishing, and bycatch. Some of the interactions may not only cause economic losses to the fishery, but also the risk of injury or even death to cetaceans. In Eastern Taiwan, the highest number of cetacean sightings around Taiwan was found at the Kuroshio current area as well as abundant fisheries resources. This results in high conflicts between fisheries and cetaceans in the area. From June 2022 to September 2022, we conducted questionnaire interviews with gillnet, longline, trammel net fishers at Hualien port, Shihti port and Chenggong port, to understand the interactions between fisheries and cetaceans in Eastern Taiwan. The results show that all interviewed fishers have seen cetaceans during fishing. According to the survey, 67% of the longlines fisheries reported having been disturbed and caused a loss of catch by cetacean; 91% of the gillnet fishers have been damaged by cetacean. The reported bycatch rate was higher in gillnet than the other two fishing gears. In summer, the bycatch rate was reported low due to the calm sea. In winter, the bycatch rate was reported high due to the northeast monsoon. For mitigation measures, longline fishers are more willing to install the acoustic deterrent devices. In addition, most fishers are unwilling switching to whale watching industry due insufficient funds or unwilling to be employed by others. This study provides the directions of management for interrupting by cetaceans during fishing for Taiwan’s coastal fisheries.

Keywords

cetaceans, fisheries interruption, bycatch, depredation, waters of Eastern Taiwan

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